Шпаргалка на англ.языке / Шпаргалки по лексикологии.doc


Preffix is a derivational morpheme standing before root and modifying meaning. It may serve to distinguish one part of speech from another. E.g.: earth-unearth.

26. Affixation. Productive, Partially-productive, Non-productive, Dead affixes.

Productive - which take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development. E.g.: Noun: -er ,-ing, -ness, -ist. Adjectives: -y, -ish, -ed, -able. Adverb: -ly. Verb: -ize/ise, --ate. Prefixes: un-, re-, dis-.

Partially - productive - the derivatives build by means of partially - productive affixes. They are limited in coining new words. They are rare. E.g.: Noun: -lin, -ese, -ster, -ie,- let. Prefixes: be-, mis-, dis-, co-.

Non- productive - are those that do not take part in deriving new words in modern English. E.g.: Noun: -th, -hood, -ship-, dom. Adjective: -ly, -some, -ous, -ful. Verb: -en, -fy. Adverb: -wards.

Dead - have undergone the process of archaization during the historical development of the language so they have merged with the root and now can not be recognized as word-building morphemes.

27. Affixation. Valency of affixes. Allomorphs.

Valency is essential feature of affixes, their combining power. The possibility of a particular stem taking a particular affix depends on phonomorphological, morphological and semantic factors. E.g: suffixes -ance/ence occur only after b,t,d,dz,v,l.(insistence), but not after s,z (conservation).

Allomorph is a term, used to denote elements of a group, whose members constitute a structural unit of the language. They don't differ in meaning but show a slight difference in sound form. An allomorph is a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment and characterized by complementary distribution (when 2 linguistic variants can't appear in the same environment).

28. Conversion. Reasons of wide-spread development of conversion.

Conversion is process of coining a new word with different distribution characteristics without adding any derivative element, so that the basic form of the original and the basic form of derived word are homonymous. E.g.: to find - a find, печь - печь.


  1. The analytical structure of modern English.

  2. The simplicity of paradigms of English parts of speech, that is the absence of morphological elements serves as classifying signals. E.g.: finger (noun) - linger (verb) - longer (adjective) - longer (adverb).

  3. A great number of one-syllable words.

29. Substantivation.

It is such case when word with an adjective stem has the paradigm of a noun. E.g.: a private, the private uniform, a group of privates. It is also the result of ellipsis when a word combination with a semantically strong attribute loses its semantically weak noun. The degree can be different. There exist complete substantivation (e.g.: a criminal, criminals, a criminal mistake, criminals'); partial (substantivised adjective or participle denotes a group or a class of people. E.g.: the blind, the poor, the dead, the rich. These words undergo no morphological changes; so they are used with the definite article, possess a collective mean.).

30. Composition. Several Aspects of compounds.

Composition is a type of word building in which new words are produced by combining 2 or more stems. There are 3 aspects of composition: structural, semantic, theoretical.

31. Structural Aspect.

3 types of compounds:

  1. Neutral - the process of compounding takes place without any linking element by a mere juxtaposition of 2 stems (armchair, breakwater). Neutral compounds are subdivided into: simple (consist of simple affixless stem); derived (have affixes in at least one constituate: blue-eyed, newcomer); contracted (have a shortened stem in their structure: T-shirt, FBI-agent); compounds where at least one of the constituance is a compound stem (wastepaper-basket, cornflower-blue).

  2. Morphological - 2 compounding stems are combined by a linking vowel or consonant (statesman, handicraft).

  3. Syntactic - the components represent segments of speech preserving in their structure numerous traces of sintagmatic relations (do-all, free-for-all, good-for-nothing, son-in-low.).

32. Semantic Aspect.

Semantically compounds are subdivided according to the degree of semantic cohesion constituent parts. 2 groups:

  1. Non-idiomatic - compounds whose meanings can be described as the sum of their constituent meaning. The first component in these words, if taking as a free form, denotes an action or state of whatever or whoever is characterized by the word. (classroom, bedroom, evening gown).

  2. Idiomatic - the meaning is shifted. 2 groups: 1) The meaning is slightly recognizable through the meaning of its constituent parts. (bluebell, blackberries). 2) In this group it is impossible to deduce the meaning of the compound from the meaning of its constituent part. (mother-of-pearl, kill-joy - брюзга). The key to meaning have been irretrievably lost (ladybird - an infect, a tallboy - a piece of furniture.).

33. Semi-affixes.

Semi-affixes - the elements occurring as independent noun such as “man”, “land”, “worthy” on the one hand and have characteristics similar to that of affixes. They stand mid-way between stems and affixes. E.g.: “like” - ladylike, “man” - sportsman, “proof” - waterproof, fireproof; “land” - motherland.

34. Shortenings.

The process of shortening consists in clipping a part of word; as a result we get a new lexical unit. In such cases as “fence” - “defense” or “fantasy” - “fancy” we have different lexical meanings. In cases “lab” - “laboratory” we have different styles. Shortening doesn't change the meaning. It produces words belonging to the same part of speech as original words. Mostly nouns are affected by shortening. 2 main types:

Graphical abbreviations are the result of shortening only in written speech for economy of space.

1. e.g.- examplia gratia; a.m. - ante meridien; p.m. - post meridien; No - numero; p.a - per annum.

2. Native origin (months, days of the week, name of states, names of counties, military rinks, scientific degrees.)

Lexical shortenings are in 2 groups:

1. Consists in making a new word from a syllable of the original word. The latter may be its beginning (telephone - phone) or ending (circs - circumstances; ad - advertisement)

2. Initial abbreviations: BBC, BUP, FBI. OPEC, WORN - acronyms.

35. Minor types of word-building.

Sound-Imitations. Words coined by this type are made by imitating different kinds of sounds that may be produced by animals, birds, insects, human beings and inanimate objects. But in different lang. The imitations sound in different way. E.g.: dogs bark (лаять).

Reduplications. New words are made by doubling a stem, either without any phonetic changes as in bye-bye or with variation of the root-vowel or consonant as in ping-pong. Most words made by reduplications are informal.

Back-Formation. The earliest example of it are the verb to bag (from French beggar), to burgle from burglar. These verbs were made from the noun by subtracting what was mistakenly associated with the English suffix -er.